Uttar Pradesh

Population: 199581000 (2011)

Language: Hindi, Urdu

Capital: Lucknow


Uttar Pradesh is the Indian state located in the northern part of India. The capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow. This is the most populous state in India and ranks second in the largest state economy. On 9th November 2000, the new state of Uttarakhand was carved out of it.


History of Uttar Pradesh


Uttar Pradesh was ruled by the kingdoms of Kosala and Kurus in pre-historic era. Then the major empires of India namely Maruyas, Kushans, Guptas, Gurjara-Pratiharas dominated the region at different times. Sher Shah Suri established his kingdom in 1540 A.D. During the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the parts of Uttar Pradesh such as Agra and Fatehpur Sikhri gained much importance. The disintegration of the Mughals in 18th century led to the rise of Marathas. In 1803, the Second Anglo-Maratha War uprooted the Marathas and established the British supremacy over the region.


The state called United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was created in 1902 and in 1920, the capital was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. It was renamed as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Govind Ballabh Patel became the first chief minister of the state after the independence of India. Uttarkhand was carved out of it in 2000 and in November 2011, the legislative assembly of Uttar Pradesh has made decisions to split the state into four smaller states namely Paschim Pradesh, Awadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand and Poorvanchal.


Geography and Climate of Uttar Pradesh


Uttar Pradesh spreads over an area of 243,286 square kilometers and ranks fifth among other Indian states in its area. It has Uttarakhand, Haryana and Delhi in the north and northwest, Madhya Pradesh in the south, Jharkhand in the southeast and Rajasthan in the west and Bihar in the east. It also shares international boundary with Nepal. The two important physiographical regions of Uttar Pradesh are the Gangetic Plain in the north and the Vindhya Hills in the south. There are totally 32 rivers here and the important ones among them are Ganges, Yamuna, Sarayu, Betwa and Ghaghara.


Uttar Pradesh has a subtropical climate where the temperature ranges from 12.5 degree Celsius to 17.5 degree Celsius in winter and 27.5 degree Celsius to 32.5 degree Celsius in summer. The state receives 1000 mm to 2000 mm rainfall in the eastern region and 600 mm to 1000 mm rainfall in the western region. Many areas of Uttar Pradesh are prone to floods and droughts.


Natural Resources of Uttar Pradesh


There are several species of plants and animals in Uttar Pradesh and due to rapid deforestation, forest resources are dwindling fast. Some of the plants and trees found here are pine, silver fir, deodar, saal, oak, teak, mango, neem, jamun, mahua, dhak, rauwolfia, sepentina, podophyllum, etc. The important species of fauna in the state are elephant, tiger, deer, wolf, jackal, porcupine, crocodile, snakes, lizards, peacock, pigeon, maina, parakeet, crow, duck and numerous varieties of fish.


Districts of Uttar Pradesh



There are 75 districts in Uttar Pradesh as of May 2012 and they are grouped under 18 divisions. Here is the recent Uttar Pradesh Districts Map with all the 75 districts marked.





Agra, Firozabad, Mainpuri, Mathura


Aligarh, Etah, Mahamaya Nagar, Kanshi Ram Nagar


Allahabad, Fatehpur, Kaushambi, Pratapgarh


Azamgarh, Ballia, Mau


Budaun, Bareilly, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur


Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar, Siddharthnagar


Banda, Chitrakoot, Hamirpur, Mahoba


Bahraich, Balrampur, Gonda, Shravasti


Ambedkar Nagar, Barabanki, Faizabad, Sultanpur, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Nagar


Deoria, Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, Maharajganj


Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur


Auraiya, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Kannauj, Ramabai Nagar, Kanpur


Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lucknow, Raebareli, Sitapur, Unnao


Bagpat, Bulandshahr, Gautam Budh Nagar, Ghaziabad, Meerut, Panchsheel Nagar


Mirzapur, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Sonbhadra


Bhimnagar, Bijnor, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Moradabad, Rampur


Muzaffarnagar, Prabuddh Nagar, Saharanpur


Chandauli, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Varanasi


State Animal of Uttar Pradesh – Swamp Deer

State Bird of Uttar Pradesh – Sarus Crane

State Dance of Uttar Pradesh – Kathak

State Flower of Uttar Pradesh – Butea Monosperma

State Language of Uttar Pradesh – Hindi

State Sport of Uttar Pradesh – Field Hockey, Cricket, Kabaddi

State Tree of Uttar Pradesh – Ashok Tree, Mango Tree


People and Culture of Uttar Pradesh


Being the most populous state in India, Uttar Pradesh has a population of 199,581,477 with a density of 820 people per square kilometer. About 80% of the people are Hindus, 18.5 % are Muslims and the remaining, the Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians and the Jains. Many tribal people live here namely Agaria, Baiga, Bhar, Chero, Gond, Kol, Korwa, Tharus, Jaunsari, Raji and Bhoksa.


Forts, temples, mousolems, handicrafts, cuisine and language and literature speak about the cultural heritage of the land. Firozabad is famous for bangles, Aligarh for Zari work, Kannauj for perfumes, Khurja for ceramics pottery, Pilibhit for wooden footwear, Varanasi for silk and Saharanpur for wood carving items. Hindi and Urdu are the widely spoken languages and some other native languages are Awadhi, Bundeli, Braj Bhasha, Kannauji and Khari Boli.


Kathak is the classical dance of Uttar Pradesh. Other forms of folk art are Khayal, Nautanki, Qawwali, Raslila, Swang and Ramlila. Salwar Kameez and Kurta Pyjama are the traditional dresses of Uttar Pradesh. The festivals celebrated here are Diwali, Holi, Dussera, Navratri, Durga Puja, Mahavir Jayanti, Moharram, Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ram Navami, Chhath Puja, Krishna Janmashtami, Christmas and Mahasivaratri, etc.


The cuisine of Uttar Pradesh consists of chapattis, rotis, puris, rice, vegetables and dhal accompanied with pickles, papad, sweets and curd. Samosas, Chaat and Pakoras are the favorite snacks relished here. The Mughlai cuisine, Awadhi cuisine and Nawabi cuisine are popular here that include dishes like pulao, biryani, parathas, halwa, korma, keema, kofta, kebab, etc.


Education and Sports in Uttar Pradesh


The literacy rate of Uttar Pradesh is 69.72% among which the male literacy rate is 79.24% and female literacy rate is 59.26%. It lags behind other Indian states in its literacy ratio. Some of the important institutions of higher education are Banaras Hindu University, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology at Allahabad, Allahabad University, Aligarh Muslim University, Indian Institute of Information Technology at Allahabad, Gautam Buddha Technical University, etc.


Cricket, hockey, kabaddi, swimming, wrestling and athletics are the popular sports of Uttar Pradesh. Green Park Stadium in Kanpur, Faizabad International Sports Stadium and Greater Noida Cricket Stadium are some of the popular stadiums in the state. Buddh International Circuit is formula-one track in Greater Noide and Faizabad Sports Complex is another sports venue in UP.


Economy of Uttar Pradesh



The economy of Uttar Pradesh is primarily agrarian and is the second largest in the country contributing 8.4% of the total GDP of India. The state has the largest number of small scale units when compared with other Indian states. The largest shoe making unit in the country is located in Kanpur. The sporting goods, tools and gold ornaments are manufactured at Meerut. Noida has some of the top IT firms and Lucknow is famous for automobile and engineering industries. Agra is famous not only for the tourist activities but also for its handicraft and small scale industries.


Some of the important industries located in Uttar Pradesh are Jaiprakash Associates, Jindal Saw, Jindal Poly Films, Dhampur Sugar Mills, India Glycols, Radico Khaitan, Khajaria Ceramics, Noida Toll Bridge Company, Triveni Engineering and Industries, etc. The second largest human DNA bank in Asia is situated in the Biotech Park in Uttar Pradesh.


Uttar Pradesh Transportation


There are totally 23 airstrips in Uttar Pradesh and the important one among them is Amausi International Airport in Lucknow. Other prominent domestic airports are at Kanpur, Gorakhpur, Agra, Varanasi and Allahabad. Uttar Pradesh rail network has a total length of 8546 kilometers and some of the largest railway stations are located at Lucknow, Varanasi, Agra Cant, Kanpur and Mathura.


There are totally 31 national highways pass through the state having a total length of 4942 kilometers. This is the seventh highest road density in India. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation runs interstate and intrastate buses. The expressways are managed by the Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority. The National Waterway I flows from Ganges to Haldia.


Uttar Pradesh Tourism


Uttar Pradesh is one of the top tourist destinations in India and is the house of three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikhri. 25% of all the foreign tourists visiting India visit Uttar Pradesh. Varanasi is famous for its ghats, Mathura famous for its Holi celebrations, Budaun famous for its historical monuments and tombs and other historical places like Sarnath, Kushinagar and Ghazipur are located in the state. Some other places of interest in Uttar Pradesh are


Dudhwa National Park

Pilibhit Tiger Reserve

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

Kataniaghat Wildlife Santuary


Travel Destinations in Uttar Pradesh