Karnataka

Population: 61130704 (2011)

Language: Kannada

Capital: Bangalore

 

Karnataka is an Indian state that was formed on 1st November 1956 as per the States Reorganization Act. The capital of Karnataka was Bangalore and the state was formerly called the state of Mysore. It got the new name Karnataka in 1973.

 

History of Karnataka

 

In 300 B.C., Karnataka was a part of Nanda Empire and then it came under the control of Mauryan King Ashoka. Satavahanas, Kadambas, Western Gangas, Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas ruled over the place. From 10th century A. D. to the earlier part of 13th century A.D., Cholas held supremacy over the region. This was followed by Hoysalas and then by the Harihara and Bukka of Vijayanagara Empire.

 

The rise of Bijapur Sultanate and the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire marked a turn in the history of Karnataka. The Mughals came to power in the second half of 17th century and the Nizam of Hyderabad was made in charge of Karnataka. Later Wodeyars and Tipu Sultan came to the scene. When India got its independence, the Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar allowed the state to join India and so in 1950 Mysore state became an Indian state. The state was reorganized and in 1973, the state of Karnataka was formed.

 

Geography and Climate of Karnataka

 

Karnataka spreads over an area of 191,791 square kilometers. Karnataka is divided into three physical zones namely the coastal region of Karavali, hilly region of Malenadu, Bayaluseeme region of Deccan Plateau. Karnataka has Arabian Sea in the west, Goa in the northwest, Maharashtra in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the east, Kerala in the southwest and Tamil Nadu in the southeast. The rivers Krishna, Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavati, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra, Cauvery, Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavathi, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini flow through the state.

 

Karnataka has four seasons, summer from March to May, monsoon season from June to September, post monsoon season from October to December and winter season in January and February. The coastal areas receive average rainfall of 3638.5 mm and the average rainfall of Karnataka is 1139 mm. Agumbe in Shivamogga district receives the second highest rainfall in India. The highest temperature is 45.6 degree Celsius and the lowest temperature is 2.8 degree Celsius.

 

Districts of Karnataka

 

There are 30 districts in Karnataka as of June 2012. Given below is the Karnataka state map with all 30 districts marked.

 

 

List of Districts of Karnataka

 

Bagalkot

Bangalore Rural

Bangalore Urban

Belgaum

Bellary

Bidar

Bijapur

Chamarajanagar

Chikkaballapur

Chikkamagaluru

Chitradurga

Dakshina Kannada

Davanagere

Dharwad

Gadag

Gulbarga

Hassan

Haveri

Kodagu (Coorg)

Kolar

Koppal

Mandya

Mysore

Raichur

Ramanagara

Shimoga

Tumkur

Udupi

Uttara Kannada

Yadgir

 

 

 

State Bird – Indian Roller

State Animal – Indian Elephant

State Tree – Sandalwood

State Flower – Lotus

State Anthem – Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate

 

Natural Resources of Karnataka

 

Karnataka has a forest area of 38, 720 square kilometers. There are five national parks located here namely Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudrmukh and Nagarhole. There are also 18 wildlife sanctuaries and 7 bird sanctuaries here. Some of the animals and birds found here are elephant, tiger, gaur, sambhar deer, slender loris, common palm civet, golden jackal, striped hyena, great hornbill, Malabar pied hornbill, herons, ducks kites, eagles, falcons, sandpipers, pigeons, doves, cuckoos, owls, etc. Some of the trees are Grewia tilaefolia, Santalum album, Garcina Cambogia, Garcina Morealla, etc.

 

People and Culture of Karnataka

 


 

As of 2011, the population of Karnataka is 61,130,704 people with a density of 320 people per square kilometer. The sex ratio is 1000 males for every 964 females. The official language of the state is Kannada. Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Marathi, Tulu and Hindi are other languages spoken. Indigenous people namely Tuluvas, Kodavas, Konkanis, Todas, Soligas, Yeravas and Siddhis live here. Karnataka is famous for Carnatic music.

 

The Karnataka cuisine has items such as Jolada rotti, Sorghum, Bisi bele bath, Ragi Mudde, Uppittu, Masala Dose, Maddur Vade, etc. Udupi cuisine is a popular cuisine. Karnataka literature is a well recognized one and seven writers have won Jnanpith award. Karnataka Ratna award is the highest civilian award given by the Government of Karnataka.

 

Economy of Karnataka

 

In 2008-09 the GSDP of Karnataka was 58.23 billion dollars. It has a GSDP growth rate of 7%. It stands sixth in India in its per capita GDP. It ranks third among other Indian states in receiving Foreign Direct Investment. 56% of the total workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture. 64.6% of the total area of the state is under cultivation.

 

Some of the large scale industries located here are Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Telephone Industries, Bharat Earth Movers Limited, HMT, etc. The biggest software firms in India, Infosys and Wipro have their headquarters in Karanataka. 38% of the IT exports of India come from this state. Also 75% of the floriculture output of India is from Karanataka. The state is also famous for its silk industry.

 

Education and Sports of Karnataka

 

The literacy rate of Karnataka is 75.60% among which the male literacy rate is 82.85% and the female literacy rate is 68.13%. The universities in Karnataka are Bangalore University, Gulbarga University, Karnataka University, Kuvempu University, Mangalore University, Visvesvaraya Technological University and Mysore University. Some of the popular educational institutions are Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, National Law School of India University, Sainik School in bijapur, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, etc.

 

Kodagu district in Karnataka is famous for hockey and the annual Kodava Hockey Festival is conducted every year. The cricket matches are held in the Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore. The Royal Challengers Bangalore IPL team is based in Bangalore.

 

Karnataka Transportation

 

There are airports at Bangalore, Mangalore, Hubli, Belgaum, Hampi, Bellary and Mysore in Karnataka and the Kingfisher Airlines has its base here. The state has a total railway network of 3089 kilometers and Konkan railway network in the Coastal Karnataka is the biggest railway project in India in this century.

 

The total length of National Highways in Karnataka is 3973 kilometers. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation runs buses. There are 11 ports in the state and New Mangalore Port among them is the major one. The port handles more than 1000 vessels every year.

 

Karnataka Tourism

 

There are many tourist spots in India such as scenic hill stations, vast stretch of beaches, unexplored forests, temple sculptures and modern cities. The state ranks fourth in tourism among other Indian states. Some of the places of interest in Karnataka are

 

1. Kudremukh Waterfall

2. Bandipur National Park

3. Bannerghatta National Park

4. Nagarhole National Park

5. Jog Falls

6. Shivanasamudra Falls

7. Gokarna Beach

8. Karwar Beach

9. Abbey Falls

10. Unchalli Falls

11. Shravanabelagola

 

Travel Destinations in Karnataka

 
 
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