Mumbai is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. With a population of 12.7 million, this is the thickly populated city in India and fourth most populous city in the world. Mumbai is the richest city with the Gross Domestic Production of $209 billion. It lies in the western coast of India and includes a group of seven islands namely Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli and Little Colaba joined together by construction project. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 square kilometers. It serves as the center of Indian film industry.


History Of Mumbai


Mumbai was formerly known as Bombay the name given by Portuguese meaning Good Bay and the name Mumbai comes from the name of the goddess Mumba Devi. Various dynasties like Satavahana dynasty, Abhiras dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Konkan Mauryas dynasty, Chalukyas dynasty, Western Kshatrapas, Rashtrakutas dynasty and Sihara dynasty.


Gujarat Sultanate was established in 1407 and it was during this time many mosques like Haji Ali Dargah were established. According to the Treat of Bassein on 23rd December 1534 Bombay was handed over to the Portugese by the Mughal emperor Humayun. Many churches were built by Portuguese. When Catherine of Braganza the daughter of King John IV of Portugal married Charles II of England on 11th May 1661, Bombay was given as dowry. It went into the hands of British East India Company in 1668. The city became the head quarters of the Bombay Presidency when the East India Company changed its headquarters from Surat to Bombay in 1687. In 1784 with the Hornby Vellard project the seven islands were merged into one.


After the Indian independence Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. On 1st May 1960 the state of Maharashtra was instituted with Bombay as its capital. Bombay was renamed as Mumbai in 1996.


Geography And Climate


Mumbai is situated at the Konkan coast at the mouth of River Ulhas. The average elevation of the land is 14 meters. Salsette is the hilly region with the highest altitude of 1476 feet. The lates vihar, Tulsi, Tansa, Powai, Upper Vaitarna and Lower Vaitarna supply water to this region.


Mumbai enjoys tropical wet and dry climate and South West monsoon brings rainfall from June to September. The average annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm. The temperature of Mumbai ranges from 75 degree Fahrenheit to 88 degree Fahrenheit with an average temperature of 81 degree Fahrenheit.


Mumbai is divided into South Mumbai, South Central Mumbai, North Central Mumbai, Western Suburbs, Central Suburbs, Harbor Suburbs and North West Mumbai. The various areas of Mumbai are Kurla, Vidyavihar, Ghatkopar, Kanjur Marg, Bhandup, Powai, Thane, Mulund, Bandra, Khar, Santa Cruz, Juhu, Jogeshwari, Goregaon, Malad, Kandawali, Dahravi, Mathunga, Vadala, Mahim, Sion, Byculla, Worli, Dadhar, Prabha Devi, Parel, Fort, Colaba, Malabar Hills, Narimon Point, Marine Lines, Tardeo, Chembur, Mankhurd, Govandi, Trombay, Manori, Jogeshwari, Boriwali, Gorai, Vasai, Nala Sopara, Virar, Bhyander, Naigaon, Mira Road, etc.


Cultural Details About Mumbai


Marathi is the main language of Mumbai though other languages like Hindi and English are also spoken. Mumbai has a cosmopolitan culture with its music, theatres, food and nightlife. The Jehangir Art Gallery, National Gallery of Modern Art, Asiatic Society of Bombay and Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya are situated here.


Mumbai International Film Festival and Filmfare Awards ceremony are conducted here. Mumbai Festival, Banganga Festival, Kala Ghoda Arts Festival, Bandra Fair and Elephanta Festival are the other cultural events conducted here. The religious festivals celebrated here are Janmashtami, Ramadan, Ganesh Chaturthi, Mt. Mary’s Feast, Gokul Ashtami, Holi, Id-ul-Alha, Navratri, Christmas, Diwali, Dussera, Moharram, Mahashivatri and Durga Puja.


Vada Pav, Pav Bhaji, Bhel Puri, Sev Puri, Pani Puri and roti and chapathi with sabji are the foods people eat. People wear sari, pavada, churidar, dupatta, gamchha, kurta, sherwani, khara dupatta, etc.


Political Details About Mumbai


Mumbai comes under the administration of Brihandmumbai Municipal Corporation. Bombay High Court is situated in Mumbai. The important political parties of Mumbai are Indian National Congress, Shiv Sena, Bharatiya Janata Party, Democratic Front, Maharashtra Navnirman Sena, Samajwadi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party. There are 24 municipal wards here. The legislative assembly of Mumbai is called as Vidhan Sabha. Municipal Commissioner is the chief executive officer who is responsible for the execution of the policies laid down by the government.


Economy And Education of Mumbai


Mumbai contributes to 6.16% of the total Gross Domestic Product of India. 60% of total customs duty collections of the nation come from Mumbai. The per capita income as of the year 2009 was Rs. 4, 86, 000. Hindi film industry and Marathi film industry are housed in Mumbai.


The major companies like Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India, Reliance, Tata Group of Companies and Godrej are located here. Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India and the SEBI are situated in Mumbai. Various nuclear institutes like Babha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths Limited, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India and Department of Atomic Energy are functioning here.


The average literacy rate of Mumbai is 85.6% with female literacy rate of 82.7% and male literacy rate of 90%. The Maharashtra State Board schools, schools run by Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, National Institute of Open Schooling and the Central Board for Secondary Education function here. The University of Mumbai is one of the largest universities of the world.


Some of the important educational institutions of Mumbai are Indian Institute of Technology, Veeramata Jijabai Technological Institute, University Institute of Chemical Technology, SNDT Women’s University, National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Jamnalal Bajaj Insitute of Management Studies, S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, Government Law College, Sydenham College, Sir J. J. School of Art, etc.


Transport Details About Mumbai


To know all the transport details about Mumbai you must know about its airways, roadways, railways and seaways. It is well connected by all the parts of the nation and world. The airport in Mumbai is called as Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport located 28 kms away from the main town and it has got two terminals Terminal 1 serving domestic flights and Terminal 2 serving international flights. All the major airlines like British Airways, Delta, Emirates, Lufthansa, SpiceJet, Jet Airways, Singapore Airlines, Saudi Airlines, Gulf Air and Kingfisher Airlines operate here.


Mumbai has a natural harbor and there are two ports here namely Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust. Ferry services are offered from Ferry Wharf to reach the Elephanta Caves and other islands. Ferry services are operated from Gateway of India to Elephanta Caves, Marve Jetty to Manori Jetty, Versova to Madh Jetty, Gorai to Grai Beach.


The Central Railway headquarters is situated at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Western Railway is situated at Churchgate. The other various terminuses are Lokmanya Tilak Terminus at Mumbai Central Station, Bandra Terminus at Andheri, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus at Dadar and Borivali.


The Mumbai Suburban Railway has three lines, the Western Line connecting Churchgate and Virar, the Central Main Line connecting Mumbai CST and Kalyan, the Harbor Line connecting Mumbai CST and Vadala. Mumbai metro and Mumbai monorail are under construction.


If you want to travel within the city you can also travel by buses run by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport. Alternatively you may hire cars, prepaid taxis, private taxis and auto rickshaws.


Internal Infrastructure of Mumbai


The Wankhede Stadium and Braboune Stadium are the two international cricket stadiums located in Mumbai where the first class cricket matches are played. Mahalakshmi Race Course is in Mumbai where the Derby races and Formula One races are conducted.


The newspapers and magazines published in Mumbai are Maharashtra Times, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Navakaal, Sakaal, Saamana, Free Press Journal, Bombay Times, The Asian Age, Lokrajya, Lok prabha, Chitralekha, Saptahik sakaal, Grihashobhika, Navbharat Times, Times of India, Mid Day, Hindustan Times, Indian Express, DNA, etc. The Mumbai based cable channels are Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri, ESPN, Star Sports, Zee 24 Taas, Lokmat IBN, Star Majha, etc.


Some of the important hospitals located here are Asian Heart Hospital, Breach Candy Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, JJ Hospital, KEM Hospital, Lilavati Hospital, Nanavati Hospital, Rushabh Eye Hospital, Susrusha Hospital, Wockhardt Hospital and Heart Institute, etc. The animal hospital functioning here is Bai Sakarbai Dinshaw Petit Hospital for Animals.


The bazaar areas of Mumbai are Chor bazaar, Fashion Street, Colaba Causeway, Zaveri bazaar, Mangaldas Market, Bhuleshwar Market, Dadar Flower Market, Mangaldas Market, Crawford Market, Family run shops, Shopping Malls and some of the supermarkets are Food Bazaar, Big Bazaar, Hypercity, DMart, Spinach Local, Apna Bazaar, Natures Basket, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Market, etc.


The foods of Chinese cuisine, Japanese, Italian, Lebanese Food and Parsi cuisine are available with regional Indian varieties like South Indian, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Goan Cuisine, Gujarati Thalis, Vegetarian and non-vegetarian items. Bhelpuri stalls, rolls, vada pav stands, sandwich stands, Chinese food stalls and Bhurji could be seen in many places. You can also eat out at McDonalds, Pizza hut, Dominos, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Subway, Café Coffee Day, Smokin’ Joe’s and Barista.


The religious places of Mumbai are Mumba Devi Temple, Mahalaxmi Temple, Siddhivinayak Temple, Mount Mary Church, ISKCON Temple, St. Thomas Cathedral, Haji Ali Durgah, St. Michael’s Church, Balaji Temple, Jain Temple, Ayyappa Temple, Buddhist Temple, Babulnath Temple, Shirdi, Mahim Shrine, Afghan Memorial Church, Walukeshwar Mandir, and Cathedral of St. Thomas, Jama Masjid, Kailash Temple, Raudat Tahera, Akloli Ganeshpuri, Titwala, etc.


Tourist Details About Mumbai


If you want to know all about Mumbai then you must certainly want to know the important places of visit in Mumbai and where you could stay during your Mumbai trip. Some of the deluxe hotels in Mumbai are Oberoi Towers, Hilton Towers, Taj Mahal Hotel, Taj President Hotel, The Oberoi, Intercontinental The Grand, Hotel Intercontinental Marine Drive, Grand Hyatt, Taj Wellington Mews, The Resort, The Retreat, Hotel Marriott Courtyard, etc.


Some of the first class hotels are Ambassador Hotel, Fariyas Hotel, Gordon House Hotel, Hotel Marine Park Plaza, The Shalimar Hotel, The Heritage, The Sea Rock, Hotel Ramada, Holiday Inn Hotel, Hotel Sahara Star, The Orchid Hotel, Hotel Peninsula, Hotel Sea Princess, Sun-n-Sand Hotel, The Mirador, etc. Hotel Kohinoor, Hotel Midland, Hotel Arma Residency, Hotel Transit, Hotel Mina International, Hotel Galaxy Avenue, Hotel Bawa Regency are some of the budget hotels in Mumbai.


Some of the interesting places in Mumbai are Gateway of India, University Buildings, Mumbai High Court, Sir J J School of Art, Crawford Market, Flora Fountain, Shivaji Terminus, Chowpatty Beach, Marine Drive, Victoria Terminus, Chor Bazaar, Rajabai Clock Tower, Colaba, Haji Ali Mosque, Malabar Hill, Elephanta Caves, Museum Ship Vikrant, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Monetary Museum, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mahalaxmi Race Course, etc.


The Gateway of India was built in the memory of visit of King George V in 1911. Chowpatty beach is where you can enjoy fresh air and is lit up at night. Haji Ali Mosque is situated in a small island 500 meters off coast. Rock cut temples on Elephanta Island is worth visiting. INS Vikrant the aircraft career is serving as the fascinating museum now. Some of the museums in Mumbai are Prince of Wales Museum designed in the Indo-Saracenic style, Victoria and Albert Museum built in the Greco-Roman style, Nehru Museum and Planetarium with children’s Science Park and Mani Bhawan which is the memorial of Mahatma Gandhi with picture gallery.


Some Facts About Mumbai


1. In ancient times Bombay was called as Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaim, Bambaye, Bombeye and Boon Bay

2. Bombay was given as a dowry to the Portuguese princess when she married King Charles II of England.

3. The first train of India was run between Bombay and Thane on 16th April 1853.

4. Mumbai accounts for 33% of total income tax collections of India.

5. Dharavi in Mumbai was the second largest slum in Asia.

6. The modern water supply in Mumbai was started in 1864.

7. 2.2 billion people are transported through Mumbai suburban railway system every year.

8. Bombay University was founded in 1857.

9. Bambaiya Hindi is the spoken dialect here which only the people of Bombay can understand.

10. The first session of Indian National Congress was held in Mumbai in December 1885.


All these details about Mumbai will help you to understand the life of people there.

Article Posted By : SumazlalView All Articles

Suhaina Mazhar is a freelance content writer and blogger with five years experience in content writing. is her blog.

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