Madhya Pradesh is an Indian state. The capital of Madhya Pradesh is Bhopal. This is the second largest state in India by area. The largest city in Madhya Pradesh is Indore. In population the state ranks sixth in the country.
History of Madhya Pradesh
Mauryan Empire ruled Madhya Pradesh in second century B. C. Then this was followed by the rule of Satavahana dynasty, Gupta dynasty and Vakataka dynasty. Rajputs rose to power in the medieval period and in 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate held supremacy over the region.
The Sultanate of Gujarat was established in 1531 and Hemu was appointed as the chief of the region. However Hemu was defeated in the Battle of Panipat and Akbar captured the region. In 1720, Madhya Pradesh came under the rule of Marathas. After the Anglo-Maratha Wars, the region was brought under the control of the British. Madhya Pradesh was created in the independent India in 1950 with Nagpur as its capital. In 1956 some other regions were added to it and Bhopal was made as its capital. The state with its present form was established on 1st November 2000 after creating Chhattisgarh.
Geography of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh spreads over an area of 72,697,565 square kilometers. It has Uttar Pradesh in the northeast, Chhattisgarh in the southeast, Maharashtra in the south, Gujarat in the west and Rajasthan in the northwest. Many rivers namely Narmada, Tapti, Godavari, Mahanadi, Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken and Parbati flow through the state. These rivers make the region fertile.
Madhya Pradesh has subtropical climate with hot dry summers and cool winters. The average rainfall of the state is 1370 mm. The districts in the south eastern part receive heavy rainfall. Summer season lasts from April to June, monsoon season from July to September and post monsoon season from October to November and winter season from December to February.
Natural Resources of Madhya Pradesh
31% of the total area of Madhya Pradesh is covered by forests. The trees like teak, sal, fuel wood and fodder grow here in abundance. There are nine national parks in the state namely Bandhavgarh National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, Kanha National Park and Pench National Park. There are two biosphere reserves here at Pachmarhi and Amarkantak.
Madhya Pradesh State Map With Districts
There are 50 districts in Madhya Pradesh as of June 2012. Given below is the Madhya Pradesh state map with all 50 districts marked.
List of Districts of Madhya Pradesh
People and Culture of Madhya Pradesh
As of 2011, the population of Madhya Pradesh was 72,697,565 with a density of 240 people per square kilometer. 92% of the people are Hindus, 6% are Muslims and people of other religion are in negligible numbers. The tribal people of Madhya Pradesh are Baiga, Bhariya, Bhils, Gondi People, Kaul, Korku, Malto People, Mariya and Sahariya. The main language spoken here is Hindi and its dialects. The tribal people speak Nihali, Kalto, Korku, Gondi, Bhilodi and Telugu. Badhai, Rai, Saira, Jawara, Kathi, Sua, Saila, Mauni, Dhimrai, Kanara, Dashera, Dadariya, Duldul Ghodi are some of the folk dances of Madhya Pradesh.
Economy of Madhya Pradesh
The economy of Madhya Pradesh has a very low growth rate of just 3.5%. Soybeans, grams, oilseeds and pulses are the major agricultural contributors of the economy. The GSDP of 2004 was $32 billion. When the state was bifurcated, 30% of the total revenue went to Chhattisgarh state. In 2000 the GSDP was 737,150 million rupees and this increased 1,044,850 million rupees in 2005. The forest resources like sal, teak and lak are the major contributors of rural economy of Madhya Pradesh.
Education and Sports of Madhya Pradesh
The literacy rate of Madhya Pradesh is 76.5%. Many colleges and research institutions are located in Madhya Pradesh. Some of them are Indian Institute of Technology at Indore, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education at Gwalior, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University, etc.
The Jabalpur Engineering College is the second oldest engineering college in India and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College is one of the oldest medical colleges in the country. The Defense Research and Development Establishment at Gwalior is involved in the research and development of finding and safeguarding against the harmful gases and chemicals.
Some of the sports commonly seen among people in Madhya Pradesh are cricket, soccer, basketball, tennis, badminton and volleyball. Nehru Stadium, Roop Singh Stadium, Maharani Usharaje Trust Cricket Ground are some of the stadiums in Madhya Pradesh. The state has produced many eminent hockey players, cricket players and athletes.
Madhya Pradesh Transportation
Madhya Pradesh is well connected with the other states of India by road, rail and air networks. Jabalpur serves as the headquarters of West Central Railway Zone. There are more than 20 railway junctions in the state. The road networks in the rural areas are developed through the Gramin Sadak Nirman Pariyojna scheme of the central government. There are five domestic airports in Madhya Pradesh namely Devi Ahilyabai Holkar Airport at Indore, Raja Bhoj Airport at Bhopal, Jabalpur Airport, Gwalior Airport and Khajuraho Airport. Apart from them there are some small air strips at Ujjain, Satna, Rewa and Khandwa.
Madhya Pradesh Tourism
The natural beauty of the forests and hill stations in Madhya Pradesh invite tourists from India and abroad. There are four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Madhya Pradesh. They are
1. Kajuraho Group of Monuments
2. Devi Jagadambi Temple
3. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
4. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
Apart from them there are many national parks, natural reserves and architecturally significant sites. Sanchi, Khajuraho, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ujjain and Bhopal are places of historical importance. Panna Tiger Reserve and Bori Nature Reserve are must see unexplored regions in Madhya Pradesh.