Jharkhand is an Indian state located in the eastern part of India. The capital of Jharkhand is Ranchi and sub capital is Dumka. It was carved out of Bihar on 15th November 2000. Jharkhand means the land of jungles.
History of Jharkhand
The indigenous people of Jharkhand region fought against British to protect their interests. Many revolts took place from 1771 to 1900 A.D. The two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu spearheaded the Santhal Rebellion in 1855. The demand for the separate state of Jharkhand continued during the British rule in India. In 1948, Dar Commission rejected the plea for the separate Jharkhand on linguistic grounds.
In August 1989, Union Home Ministry formed a committee to look at Jharkhand Matters. In 1995, Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council was set up. Finally on 15th November 2000, Jharkhand became the 28th state of India with 24 districts.
Geography and Natural Resources of Jharkhand
The state of Jharkhand spreads over an area of 79,714 square kilometers. Jharkhand is bordered by Bihar in the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in the west, Orissa in the south and West Bengal in the east. The major cities of Jharkhand are Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Hazaribagh.
Jharkhand lies in the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The rivers that flow through the state are Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Khakai and Subarnarekha. Most parts of the state are covered with forests and so it is rich in flora and fauna. Belta National Park, Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru Zoological Garden, Palamau Tiger Reserves and Birsa Munda Jaiwik Udyan are some of the places where animals like sambhars, wild boar, phythons, wild cats, giant squirrels, mongoose, wolves, antelopes, tigers, elephants, bisons, etc are found.
Jharkhand State Map With Districts
When the state was formed there were only 18 districts. Some of them were reorganized and as of June 2012 there are 24 districts in Jharkhand. Given below is the Jharkhand state map with all 24 districts marked.
List of Districts of Jharkhand
People and Culture of Jharkhand
As of 2011, the population of Jharkhand is 32,966,238 with a density of 410 square kilometers. 28% of the total populations are tribal people. These tribal people follow the animistic Sarna religion. As of 2001 census, 68.5% of people follow Hinduism, 13.8% follow Islam, 13% follow Sarna religion and 4.1% follow Christianity.
There are totally 32 tribal groups in Jharkhand and some of them are Mahli, Bainga, Batudi, Bedia, Birhor, Chero, Parhaiya, Oraon, Munda, Lohra, Mahli, Korwa, Kisan, Khond, Kharwar, Kharia, Karmali, Gorait, Gond, etc. Hindi is the official language of the state. Other languages spoken include Santhali, Mundari, Kharia, Nagpuri, Oriya, Bengali, Maithili, Kurmali, etc.
Rice is the staple food of people and the cuisine of Jharkhand includes rotis, pitha, dhuska, dudhauri, charpa, etc. Mushrooms and Sag have a prominent place in their cuisine. Rice beer called Handiya is the local alcoholic drink.
Economy of Jharkhand
The GSDP of Jharkhand in 2004 is $14 billion. The state is rich in its mineral resources such as graphite, kainite, chromite, asbestos, thorium, sillimanite, uranium, copper, coal, bauxite and manganese and iron ore. It ranks first in India in the availability of iron ore, copper ore, kainite and mica. The largest steel plant in Asia, Bokaro Steel Plant is located here.
Some of the major industrial units are Tata Steel Plant, Tata Motors, TRF Limited, BMW Steel, TELCOM, BOC Gases, Praxair, Tinplate, Heavy Engineering Corporation, Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Telaiya Hydro Power Station, Jindal Steel Plant, Bharat Refractories Limited, Central Coalfields Limited, Ashok Industries, Hindustan Copper Limited, etc.
Education and Sports in Jharkhand
As per 2011 census, the literacy rate of people of Jharkhand is 67.63% with male literacy rate of 78.45% and female literacy rate of 56.21%. The state is yet to go in this regard and the government has set up many colleges and schools and made education compulsory for all. Some of the educational institutions here are Indian School of Mines University, National Institute of Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology.
There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely M. G. M. Medical College, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences and Patliputra Medical College and Hospital. One of the oldest business schools here is Xavier Institute of Social Service.
The games popular among people are cricket, hockey and football. Jaipal Singh from this state was the former captain of Indian hockey team. Other players are Olympian, Manohar Topno, Varun Aaron, Saurabh Tiwary and Vimal Lakra.
There are four airports in Jharkhand namely Birsa Munda Airport, Chakulia Airport, Nawadih Airfield and Sonari Airport. Among them Birsa Munda Airport located in Ranchi and Sonari Airport in Jamshedpur are the domestic airports that serve people. The Deccan Aviation, North East Shuttles, Air India, GoAir and Jet Airways operate flights from here.
Hatia Station, Ranchi Junction, Muri Junction, Madhupur Junction and Jasidih Junction are some of the prominent railway stations in Jharkhand. They come under the South Eastern Railway Zone. The national highways NH 100, NH 2, NH 23, NH 31, NH 32, NH 33, NH 78, NH 80, NH 75, NH 6, NH 98 and NH 99 pass through Jharkhand. Hence the state is well connected with other parts of India through its road network.
Whether it is adventure tourism, spiritual tourism, eco tourism, heritage tourism, tribal tourism or mining tourism, Jharkhand has in store vast treasures to cater to the expectations. Some of the tourist destinations here are
1. Tagore Hills
2. Hundru Falls
3. Dasham Falls
4. Jonha Falls
5. Hirni Falls
6. Ranchi Hill
7. Jagannathpur Temple
8. Nakshatra Van
9. Gonda Hill and Rock Garden
10. Sun Temple
11. Amreshwar Dham
12. Ranchi Lake
13. Birsa Jaivik Udyan
14. Panch Gagh Falls